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This page shares Dr. Bell’s selected publications. For a complete list, please see her CV (pdf).

Journal Articles

Mathews, H. M., Stark, K., Jones, N. D., & Bell, C. (2023). Surfacing Principals’ Beliefs About Instruction for Students With Disabilities: A Qualitative Analysis. Exceptional Children, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/00144029231220311

Bell, C. A., & Gitomer, D. H. (2023). Building the field’s knowledge of teaching and learning: Centering the socio-cultural contexts of observation systems to ensure valid score interpretation. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2023.101278

Jones, N.D., Bell, C.A., Brownell, M., Qi, Y. Peyton, D., Pua, D., Fowler, M., & Holtzman, S. (2022). Using Classroom Observations in the Evaluation of Special Education Teachers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 44(3), 429-457. https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737211068523

Morris-Mathews, H., Stark, K.R., Jones, N.D., Brownell, M.T., & Bell, C.A. (2021). Danielson’s Framework for Teaching: Convergence and divergence with conceptions of effectiveness in special education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 54(1), 66-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219420941804

Lewis, J.M., Reid, D.B., Bell, C.A., Jones, N.D., & Qi, Y. (2020). The mantle of agency: Principals’ use of teacher evaluation policy. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 21(2), 361-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2020.1770802

Liu, S., Bell, C.A., Jones, N., McCaffrey, & D.F. (2019). Classroom observation systems in context: A case for the validation of observation systems. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(1), 31-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-018-09291-3

Bell, C.A., Dobbelaer, M., Klette, K., Visscher, A. (2018). Qualities of classroom observation systems. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 30(1), 3-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2018.1539014

Bell, C.A., Jones, N.D., Qi, Y., & Lewis, J.M. (2018). Strategies for assessing classroom teaching: Examining administrator thinking as validity evidence. Educational Assessment, 23(4), 229-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/10627197.2018.1513788

Hafen, C. A., Hamre, B. K., Allen, J. P., Bell, C. A., Gitomer, D. H., & Pianta, R. C. (2015). Teaching through interactions in secondary school classrooms: Revisiting the factor structure and practical application of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System– Secondary. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(5-6), 651-680. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431614537117

Gitomer, D.H., Bell, C.A., Qi, Y., McCaffrey, D.F., Hamre, B.K., & Pianta, R.C. (2014). The instructional challenge in improving teaching quality: Lessons from a classroom observation protocol. Teachers College Record, 116(6), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811411600607

Casabianca, J. M., McCaffrey, D. F., Gitomer, D. H., Bell, C. A., Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2013). Effect of observation mode on measures of secondary mathematics teaching. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(5), 757-783. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164413486987

Bell, C.A., Gitomer, D.H., McCaffrey, D., Hamre, B., Pianta, R., & Qi, Y. (2012). An argument approach to observation protocol validity. Educational Assessment, 17(2–3), 62-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/10627197.2012.715014

Bell, C.A., & Youngs, P. (2011). Substance and show: Understanding responses to teacher education programme accreditation processes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 298-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.012

Bell, C.A., Wilson, S., Mc Coach, B., & Higgins, T. (2010). Measuring the effects of professional development: The case of Developing Mathematical Ideas. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5), 479-512. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41110411

Sondergeld, T., Bell, C.A., & Leusner, D. (2010). Understanding how teachers engage in formative assessment. Teaching and Learning: The Journal of Natural Inquiry and Reflective Practice, 24(2), 72-86. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/300133987_Understanding_how_teachers_engage_in_formative_assessment

Bifulco, R., Cobb, C., & Bell, C. (2009). Can Interdistrict Choice Boost Student Achievement? The case of Connecticut. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(4), 323-345. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373709340917

Bell, C. (2009a). All choices created equal? The role of choice sets in the selection of schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 84(2), 191-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/01619560902810146

Bell, C. (2009b). Geography in school choice. American Journal of Education, 155(4), 493-521. https://doi.org/10.1086/599779

Youngs, P. & Bell, C. (2009). When policy instruments combine to promote coherence: An analysis of Connecticut’s policies related to teacher quality. Journal of Education Policy, 24(4), 435–460. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930802669920

Bell, C. (2007). Space and place: Urban parents’ geographic preferences for schools. The Urban Review, 39(2), 375-404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-007-0059-5

Bell, C., Horn, B., & Roxas, K. (2007). We know it’s service, but what are they learning? Preservice teachers’ understandings of diversity. Equity and Excellence in Education, 40(2), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680701218467

Bell, C. (2006). Real options: The role of choice sets in the selection of schools. Teachers College Record, 9. https://doi.org/10.1080/01619560902810146

Arsen, D., Bell, C., & Plank, D. (2004). Who will turn around “failing” schools? A framework for institutional choice. Perspectives, 10, 1-20. 

Books & Chapters

Bell, C. A. (2022). Forward. In John Schwille, What would it take to make an ed school great? Voices from an unfinished revolution. Michigan State University Press. ISBN-13: 9781948314138

Bell, C. A. & Kane, M. T. (2022). Formative and summative teacher evaluation in social context. In J.Manzi, Sun, Y., Garcia, M.R. (Eds.)  Teacher evaluation around the world: Experiences, dilemmas, and future challenges (pp.9-38). Springer. ISBN-13: 978-3-031-13638-2

Bell, C. A. & Mislevy, R. (2021). Practice, feedback, argument, measurement:  A frame for understanding diverse perspectives on teaching assessments.  In Klette, K. & M. Tengberg (Eds.) Analysing teaching quality: Perspectives, principles and pitfalls.  Scandinavian University Press. https://issuu.com/universitetsforlaget/docs/sider_fra_1297-ways-of-analyzing_pub020222

Bell, C. A. (2020).  Commentary regarding the section “Dimensions of teaching quality – Theoretical and empirical foundations”: Using warrants and alternative explanations to clarify next steps for the TDB model. In A.K. Praetorious, J. Grunkorn, & E. Klieme (Eds.), Empirical research on teaching quality: Theoretical foundations and quantitative models, 66th Supplement of Zeitschrift für Pädagogik (pp.56-62). Beltz. DOI: 10.3262 / ZPB2001056

Praetorious, A., Rogh, W., Bell, C.A., & Klieme, E. (2019). Methodological challenges in conducting international research on teaching quality using standardized observations. In L. Suter, E. Smith & B.D. Denman (Eds.), Sage handbook on comparative studies in education: Practices and experiences in student schooling and learning (pp.269-288). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781526484635

Gitomer, D. H. & Bell, C. A. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of Research on Teaching, 5th Edition. American Educational Research Association. DOI: 10.3102/978-0-935302-48-6

Gitomer, D. H., & Bell, C. A. (2016). Introduction. In D.H. Gitomer and C.A. Bell (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching (5th Ed, pp.1-6). American Educational Research Association. ISBN: 978-0-935302-47-9

Bell, C. A., Qi, Y., Croft, A. J., Leusner, D., McCaffrey, D. F., Gitomer, D. H., & Pianta, R. C. (2014). Improving observational score quality: Challenges in observer thinking. In T. J. Kane, K. A. Kerr & R. C. Pianta (Eds.), Designing teacher evaluation systems: New guidance from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project (pp.50-97). Jossey-Bass. ISBN: 978-1118834350

Gitomer, D.H., & Bell, C.A. (2013). Evaluating teaching and teachers. In K. F. Geisinger (Ed.), APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology (Vol. 3, pp.415–444). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/14049-020

Cobb, C, Bifulco, R., & Bell, C. (2011). Legally viable desegregation strategies: The case of Connecticut. In E. Frankenberg & E. Debray-Pelot (Eds.), Integrating schools in a changing society: New policies and legal options for a multiracial generation. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN: 978-0-8078-6920-8

Bell, C. (2008). Social class differences in school choice: The role of preferences.  In W. Feinberg & C. Lubienski (Eds.), School choice policies and outcomes (pp.121-148). SUNY. ISBN: 978-0-7914-7571-3

Wilson, S., Bell, C., Galosy, J., & Shouse, A. (2004). “Them that’s got shall get”: Understanding teacher recruitment, induction, and retention. In M.A. Smylie & Miretzky, D. (Eds.), Developing the teacher workforce: 103rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp.145-179). The University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/4126486

Reports

Jones, N.D., Bell, C.A., Qi, Y., Lewis, J.M., Kirui, D., Stickler, L., & Redash, A. (2021). Certified to evaluate: Exploring administrator accuracy and beliefs in teacher observation. (Research Report). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12316

Bell, C.A. (2021).  The development of the study observation coding system. In OECD (Ed.) Global teaching insights technical report (Ch. 4). Paris: OECD.  [Archived: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/GTI-TechReport-Chapter4.pdf]

Bell, C.A. (2021).  Rating teaching components and indicators of video observations. In OECD (Ed.) Global teaching insights technical report (Ch. 6). Paris: OECD. [Archived: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/GTI-TechReport-Chapter6.pdf]

Bell, C.A., Klieme, E., & Praetorius, A-K. (2021).  Conceptualizing teaching quality into six study domains for the study. In OECD (Ed.) Global teaching insights technical report (Ch. 2). Paris: OECD.  [Archived: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/GTI-TechReport-Chapter2.pdf]

Castellano, K.E. & Bell, C.A. (2021).  Video component score characteristics. In OECD (Ed.) Global teaching insights technical report (Ch. 19). Paris: OECD.  [Archived: https://www.oecd.org/education/school/GTI-TechReport-Chapter19.pdf]

Castellano, K.E. & Bell, C.A. (2021).  Video indicator score characteristics. In OECD (Ed.) Global teaching insights technical report (Ch. 20). Paris: OECD.  [Archived: https://www.oecd.org/education/school/GTI-TechReport-Chapter20.pdf]

Bell, C.A., Castellano, K.E., & Klieme, E. (2020). Classroom management.  Global teaching insights study policy report (Ch. 3).  Paris: OECD.  https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/global-teaching-insights_20d6f36b-en

Bell, C.A., Klieme, E & Castellano, K.E. (2020). Social-emotional support.  Global teaching insights study policy report (Ch. 4).  Paris: OECD.  https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/global-teaching-insights_20d6f36b-en

Bell, C.A., Schweig, J., Castellano, K.E., Klieme, E., & Stecher, B.M. (2020). Instruction.  Global teaching insights study policy report (Ch. 5).  Paris: OECD.  https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/global-teaching-insights_20d6f36b-en

Opfer, V.D., Bell, C.A., Klieme, E., McCaffrey, D.F., Schweig, J., & Stecher, B.M. (2020). Understanding and measuring mathematical practice.  Global teaching insights study policy report (Ch. 2).  Paris: OECD.  https://doi.org/10.1787/20d6f36b-en

Bell, C. A., Gitomer, D. H. Savage, C., & McKenna, A. H. (2019). A synthesis of research on and measurement of STEM teacher preparation. American Association for the Advancement of Science. https://aaas-arise.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Bell-Gitomer-Savage-McKenna-A-Synthesis-of-Research-on-and-Measurement-of-STEM-Teacher-Preparation.pdf

Bell, C. A., White, R. S., & White, M. E. (2018). A systems view of California’s teacher education pipeline. Stanford University. https://gettingdowntofacts.com/publications/systems-view-californias-teacher-education-pipeline

Qi, Y., Bell, C. A., Jones, N., Lewis, J. M., Witherspoon, M., & Redash, A. (2018). Administrators’ uses of an observation protocol in different rating contexts. (Research Report No. RR-18-18). Educational Testing Service. https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12205

Bell, C., Jones, N., Lewis, J., Qi, Y., Stickler, L., Liu, S., & McLeod, M. (2016). Understanding consequential assessment systems of teaching: Year 1 final report to Los Angeles Unified School District (Research Memorandum No. RM-16-12). Educational Testing Service. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315654402_Understanding_Consequential_Assessment_Systems_for_Teachers_Year_1_Report_to_the_Los_Angeles_Unified_School_District

Witherspoon, M., Sykes, G., Bell, C. A. (2016). Leading a Classroom Discussion: Definition, Supporting Evidence, and Measurement of the ETS National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series (Research Memorandum  RM-16-09). Educational Testing Service. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED570574.pdf

Bell, C., Jones, N., Lewis, J., Qi, Y., Kirui, D., Stickler, L., & Liu, S. (2015). Understanding consequential assessment systems of teaching: Year 2 final report to Los Angeles Unified School District (Research Memorandum No. RM-15-12). Educational Testing Service. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED570635.pdf

Bell, C.A., Jones, N.D., Lewis, J., Qi, Y., Liu, S., & McLeod, M. (2013a). Understanding Consequential Assessment Systems for Teachers: Year 1 Preliminary Report. Los Angeles Unified School District.

Bifulco, R., Cobb, C., & Bell, C. (2009). Evaluation of Connecticut’s Open Choice Program.  CT State Department of Education.

Bifulco, R., Cobb, C., & Bell, C. (2008). Evaluation of Connecticut’s Interdistrict Magnet Schools. State Department of Education.

Bell, C., Bifulco, R., & Cobb, C. (2008). Evaluation of Connecticut’s Project Choice Early Beginnings Program. CT State Department of Education.

Little, O., Goe, L., Bell, C. (2008). Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: A Practical Guide.  National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543776.pdf

Goe, L, Bell, C., Little, O. (2008). Approaches to evaluating teacher effectiveness: A research synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED521228

Bell, C., Bifulco, R., & Cobb, C. (2006). Connecticut Interdistrict Magnet and State Charter School Report. CT State Department of Education.

Dougherty, J., Estevez, N., Wanzer, J., Tatem, D., Bell, C. A., Cobb, C., &  Esposito, C. (2006). A Visual Guide to Sheff v. O’Neill School Desegregation. The Cities, Suburbs and Schools Research Project at Trinity College and the University of Connecticut Center for Education Policy Analysis. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu

Green, R., Griffore, R., Hall, R., Bell, C., Livingston, J., & Lewis, K. (2003). A Progress Report: School improvement in the Detroit Public Schools. Phase III focus groups.  Michigan State University.

Sykes, G. & Bell, C. (2002). Reform within a reform: Charter school accountability. American Federation of Teachers.

Working Papers

Bartanen, B., Bell, C., James, J., Taylor, E.S., & Wyckoff, J.H. (2023). “Refining” Our Understanding of Early Career Teacher Skill Development: Evidence From Classroom Observations. (EdWorkingPaper No. 23-845). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University: https://doi.org/10.26300/wykj-e663

Bell, C., James, J., Taylor, E. S., & Wyckoff, J. H. (2023, January). Measuring returns to experience using supervisor ratings of observed performance: The case of classroom teachers. (NBER Working Paper No. 30888). https://doi.org/10.3386/w30888

Bell, C. A., Phelps, G., McCaffrey, D., Liu, S., Weren, B., Glazer, N., & Forzani, F. (2023, February). Simulating classroom interactions at scale for the improvement of practice-based teacher education (Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison Working Paper No. 2022-3). https://wcer.wisc.edu/docs/working-papers/WCER_Working_Paper_No_2022_3.pdf

Bell, C. A. (2005, October). All choice created equal?: How good parents select “failing” schools (National Center for the Study of Privitization in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Courtney-Bell-2/publication/252224738_All_Choices_Created_Equal_How_Good_Parents_Select_Failing_Schools/links/54f5c6320cf21d8b8a5b7920/All-Choices-Created-Equal-How-Good-Parents-Select-Failing-Schools.pdf